digital electronics

What is Digital Electronics?

Digital electronics is a fundamental term in computer and electrical engineering. Today we are going to shine some light on this sphere and the broader approaches a student can take with it.

Let us first understand what digital electronics is all about!

The electronic representations of Boolean logic functions and the large assembly of logic gates helps the formation of digital electronic circuits.

This article is to help student understand the fundamental of digital electronics. This will help them to go ahead with the course.

Something to Know About Digital Electronics:

Computerized gadgets are the frameworks that utilizes an advanced jack signal rather than a pure digital for its operations. The advanced electrical circuits are those that work with electric signals.

The simple jack inspects these discrete signs. Computerized courses utilize the parallel documentation for transmission of the messages.

Why is Digital Electronics important?

There are several fields of electrical engineering within the sphere of computer science and engineering. This requires the need for the creation of a digital framework. The computer engineers have extensive training in the field of electronics, software design and the hardware-software integration instead of only the field of electricals. The scope of this course is a huge one as they include the designing of micro-controllers, microprocessors, personal computers and the supercomputers.

The field of Digital Electronics uses the VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) that has reduced the size and the complete area of the circuit boards. This enhances the accuracy and the system performance. For communication purposes, digital systems have a significant advantage in data encryption. The transm,ission of data, remains safe and secured. These are the ruling factors that signifies the importance of the digital electronics stream. They also have a vast future scope in recent times.

What are the types of digital circuits?

The voltage has finite number of distinct values in a digital circuit.

There are two types of digital logic circuits:

  • Combinational logic circuits
  • Sequential logic circuits

These basic circuits are used in digital electronic systems.

The voltage levels switches from one value to other instantaneously in the digital ones and they are also termed as switching circuits.

These circuits are also termed as the logic circuits since their operations accept a definite set of logical rules.

  1. Combinational logic circuit

The digital logic gates like AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and universal all forms the combinational digital circuits.

These gates are all combined together to form a complicated switching circuit. The building blocks of the combinational circuits are the logic gates. The output at any of the instant time depends on the present input at that specific point in a combinational logic circuit. These circuits do not have any memory devices embedded within.

The primary examples of a combinational circuit are the encoders and decoders.  The present input has the binary coded data and it is converted into several different output lines with the help of a decoder. The half adder and full adder, encoder, decoder, multiplexer, code converter, etc. are all under combinational switching circuits.

There are three major parts in the combinational digital logic circuits:

  • Arithmetic or logical functions
  • Data transmission
  • Code convertor
  1. Sequential digital logic circuits

The sequential digital logic circuits differ from the combinational logic circuits. The output of the logic device is not dependent on the present inputs to the device. They also differ from the past data in sequential circuits.

The sequential circuits have memory devices, unlike the combinational. This helps to store the past outputs. Combinational circuits with memory are usually the sequential digital logic circuits. The finite state machine designs these types of digital logic circuits.

The main examples of sequential logic circuits are the counters, flip flops. Digital logic gates and memory constructs them.

There are two inputs that are operated by combinational logic circuits for the production of various outputs.

The combinational logic circuit receives the output from the memory devices. The secondary devices are formed by internal inputs and outputs.

The state variables that are produced by the storage elements are the secondary inputs devices. The excitations for the storage elements are the secondary output devices.

There are three major parts of sequential digital logic circuits:

  • Event driven
  • Clock driven
  • Pulse driven.

What is digital circuit and system?

A signal is represented in discrete states or logic levels in digital circuit. The non-continuous and change in individual steps are the digital signals. They usually contain the pulses with discrete levels. There is an abrupt change from one digit to the next as the value of each pulse is constant.

There are two discrete values in the signals of all present-day electronic digital systems. They are the binary ones. The binary system is used with the restriction of the digital-system design. This happens with lower reliability of several electronic circuits. The digital systems are constrained to take the discrete values.

In most of the digital circuits there are two voltage levels. They are labeled as “Low” (0) and “High” (1). The  voltage supply determines the “Low” and “High”.

Hardware, software, and networks comprises of digital system. Various elements combine to form a single system for example a computer.

A computer contains the components like the central processing unit, a hard disk, keyboard, mouse, screen, and others.

Digital system is the combination of the hardware and software components. They are internal and external inputs, for transforming data into a digital solution. The digital systems connects to form network.

What is the classification of Digital Circuits and Systems?

By using a variety of semiconductor electronic devices like PN Junction Diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors, etc in combination with passive components like the resistors and capacitors, signal processing can be implemented.

A complete electronic system or device can form with the interconnection of many such circuits where each circuit performs a specific task. Based on the above understanding of the Analog and the Digital Signals, they both lay the basis of the design of electronic circuits. They are:

  • Analog Circuits
  • Digital Circuits

The processes in Analog and Digital Circuits helps to differ between the two signals.  The discrete signals are sent by the digital circuits. The analog circuits sends the waves of analog signals.

What is the difference between analog and digital electronics?

The difference is as follows:

  • The circuits operate on the analog signals.
  • Zeros and Ones are the two levels of signals that functions under the digital circuit.
  • The design of the analog circuit is quite complicated.
  • The digital circuits are designed easily.
  • There is no change in input signals for generating an analog output.
  • The input signals change from analog to digital.
  • The analog signals lack flexibility and are typically routine-made.
  • There is a higher level of elasticity within the digital circuits.

Combinational vs. Sequential

The time independent circuits that do not depend on the previous inputs for generating any output are the combinational circuits. The sequential cycles are dependent on the present and past inputs.

Combinational Circuits:

  • Output relies only on the current input.
  • Speedy
  • Easy design.
  • Between input and output there is no feedback.
  • Not dependent on time
  • Logic gates are the elementary building blocks.
  • Arithmetic and Boolean operations uses it.
  • They have no capability for storing any state.
  • The combinational circuits do not require any triggering and are not dependent on clocks.
  • There is no memory element into it.
  • It can be handled and used easily.

Sequential Circuits:

  • Output relies on the present and past input.
  • Speed is slow.
  • Between the input and output there is a feedback path.
  • Dependent on time.
  • Flip-Flops are the elementary building blocks.
  • Used for the storage of data.
  • The combinational circuits do require triggers as they are dependent on clocks.
  • The memory element is present in these circuits.
  • It cannot be used or handled easily.

Which is faster asynchronous or synchronous?

Synchronous data transmission

The data moves in a complete paired approach in the form of chunks or frames in Synchronous transmission. No spaces are there between the data.

Characteristics of Sydnchronous data transmission:

  • Between the characters sent, there are no spaces.
  • At the end of the transmission the timing is provided by the modems or other devices.
  • ‘Syn’ characters goes before.
  • The syn characters are placed between the data chunks.

Asynchronous data transmission

The data moves in a half-paired approach, 1 byte or 1 character at a time in asynchronous transmission.  It becomes a total of 10 bit with the size of a character transmitted is usually at 8 bits. It does not require clock integration.

Characteristics of asynchronous data transmission:

  • It begins with bits and concludes by one or more bits.
  • In between the characters, gaps and spaces might exist.

To conclude, synchronous transmission data has greater speed.

Some Advantages of Using Digital Electronics:

  • Easily programmable

The design of digital electronics is an easy one. It requires a simple change of the program without additional modifications to the hardware.

  • Reduced cost of hardware

The use of digital components helps to reduce the cost of hardware and advances in IC technology has made it possible.

  • Faster Pace

There is a high speed of operation possible with the advancement of the Digital Signal.

  • A high amount of reliability

The use of the error correction codes helps the digital systems highly reliable.

  • Easy Design

The digital system uses Boolean algebra and the analog design do not.

  • Easy Results

The outcomes in a digital system is easy.

Disadvantages of Digital Electronics:

The digital electronics has some weaknesses that can affect your thinking regarding signal transmissions.

  • Expensive design

The digital platform requires a high quality of design. This might be expensive for building better binary data transfers. Having a model of digital electronics is costly.

  • Slow Pace

It takes a lot of time to make the design better by providing enhancements to the digital circuit that will direct the signals effectively.

  • Portability becomes difficult

There are issues with change of the ports to transfer the digital signals directly into the electric circuits making the portability quite a difficult one.

  • High Energy Consumption

There is a high consumption of energy to make the circuit boards perform in a better way.

  • Greater bandwidth required

The signals need more system bandwidth to maintain the usage of digital circuits. By increasing the bandwidth, the channels get more power to store adequate amount of signal. This makes the messages flow through the optimized gate terminals of switch and circuit boards.

  • Not easily fixed

It is hard to repair the circuits if they breakdown making this the worst drawback.

There are many advantages and disadvantages of the circuits. It can help you in understanding the difference between terms that comes under the subject of digital electronics.

Many people can currently find the answers. This can tell them about the differences between digital and the Analog signals. The article will help you to choose the best circuits for the operating system.

 

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